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  • Sakshar Law Associates

Position of Indian law when founders and co-founders do not see eye to eye?

Updated: Sep 3, 2022


Sakshi Shairwal

Niyati Mohanty


A Co- Founders’ agreement outlines the rights and responsibilities of the co-founder that can help in avoiding any conflict that might arise among co-founders in the future. The co-founders should thoroughly consider any potential issues that they or the business may face and conceptualize answers for the equivalent. Nonetheless, it is as yet important to have discussions on subjects like selling of the business, fellow benefactor leaving the nation for a rewarding open position, or one of the authors not performing great and the response accessible in such case.


The key points that are to be kept in mind while making a co- founder’s agreement are:

1. Ownership of Equity

One of the main terms of the Agreement is deciding the extent of equity ownership of the fellow benefactors of the organization. The value responsibility for co-founders of the organization is resolved mulling over various factors, for example, the financial venture, insight, existing intellectual property, skill, and organization in the business. Likewise, the value possession is relevant to discover the voting rights that the co-founder may work out.

2. Vesting

The significant contemplations to be observed while drafting the Agreement is furnishing an instrument to manage a circumstance where any of the co-founders opts to exit or is expelled from the organization. For this reason, a vesting structure should be consolidated in the Agreement enumerating the way in which the shares will be taken up by the founders. There are two ways in which this can be carried out:

Time-Based: The shares owned by the founder shall be vested in proportion to the time spent by the founder in the company. In the event, the founder decides to quit from the company before the expiry of his term, the remaining shares of such founder shall be returned to the company. The Agreement shall state a time period post which the vesting of shares shall begin ("Cliff Period").

Milestone: The vesting of shares in milestone vesting takes place when the milestones set out in the Agreement are achieved by the company. This type of vesting rewards the performance of the business as a whole. In the event, the founder leaves the company before the milestones are achieved, the shares earmarked for such founder do not vest in him.

3. Stating of the Roles and Duties

The agreement ought to plainly outline the jobs and obligations of every one of the founders of the organization. Comprehensively, the jobs and duties of the founders can be separated as tasks, showcasing, organization and money.

4. Restricting the Share Transfer

Another significant angle to be thought about in the Agreement is the rights and limitations of the founders to move their shares in the organization. The Agreement may accommodate a lock-in statement endorsing the number of years before the expiry of which the co-founder isn't allowed to move the shares claimed by him in the organization. The Agreement will accommodate a system to manage a circumstance where the co-founder needs to leave the organization before the expiry of the lock-in period. It is relevant to discover the technique for valuation of the shares and the counter weakening rights joined to the offers. One of the approaches to guarantee that the value of the organization isn't moved to untouchables is by giving the privilege of the first refusal to the investors. The privilege of the first refusal will require the founders to move their shares outside just once and the equivalent will not be taken up by different investors of the organization.

In the case of Bajaj Auto Ltd v. Western Maharashtra Development Corporation Limited (CDJ2015 BHC 1305), it was upheld that in the occasion there is an arrangement inter the investors containing limitations on exchange of shares of the organization, at that point regardless of whether such an organization is a public organization the limitations on exchange of shares will be enforceable.

5. Assignment of Intellectual Property

All in all business practice, the thoughts, creations, and other licensed innovations created by an individual remain parts of the property of that individual. While drafting the Agreement it should be taken considering that the intellectual property of the founders is allocated to the organization and the equivalent doesn't remain the property of a person. It isn't extraordinary for organizations to acquire brand names, licenses, and area names for the sake of at least one of the co-founders at first which later might be moved for the sake of the organization. The valuation of the organization is influenced by the intellectual property claimed by it. Further, the Agreement will contain a provision expressing that the licensed innovation created by the co-founders throughout their relationship with the organization will consistently be possessed by the organization. In specific high innovation areas, the founder can consider sharing the intellectual property mutually with the organization. Nonetheless, this should be thoroughly examined and reported appropriately.

6. Non- Compete

The co-founders of the organization are relied upon to keep up severe secrecy of the business exercises of the organization and will avoid taking part in any business that contentions with the matter of the organization. There should be a reasonable arrangement between the co-founders restricting them from taking part in exercises that are in clash with the goals of the organization during their affiliation and for a time of a specific number of years after the end of the Agreement.

It is relevant to note that Section 27 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, gives that each arrangement by which anybody is limited from practicing a legal calling, exchange, or business of any sort, is to that degree void. The courts in India have taken changed perspectives in upholding such a condition. It tends to be gathered that while managing questions identifying with non-content provision under a business arrangement, the Indian courts have considered the pre-end time of the work particular from the post end time of the work.

In Taprogge Gesellschaft MBH v. IAEC India Ltd (AIR 1988 Bom 157), the Bombay High Court held that “a restraint operating after the termination of the contract to secure freedom from competition from a person, who no longer worked within the contract, was void. The court refused to enforce the negative covenant and held that, even if such a covenant was valid under German law, it could not be enforced in India.”

In Gujarat Bottling Company Ltd and Ors. v. Coca Cola Co. and Ors. [1995 (5) SCC 545] it was upheld that There is a developing pattern to control the conveyance of products and ventures through establishment arrangements accommodating the award of establishment by the franchiser on certain footing and conditions to the franchisee. Such arrangements regularly fuse a condition that the franchisee will not arrange with contending merchandise. Such a condition limiting the privilege of the franchisee to manage contending products is for encouraging the conveyance of the merchandise of the franchiser and it can't be viewed as in restriction of exchange.

7. Confidentiality

The founders by the very idea of their relationship with the organization know about a ton of classified data about the organization some of which may comprise proprietary innovations. The founders should be authoritatively limited from revealing any classified data acquired by such co- founder over the span of his/her relationship with the organization as the equivalent may make unsalvageable damage the matter of the organization.

8. Dispute Resolution and Termination

The Agreement will set out the privileges of the organization also the co- founders to end the Agreement. The Agreement might be endless supply of a specific occasion, i.e., for cause or with no reason by a gathering or by common assent of the gatherings. Further, the Agreement will give an away from to goal of questions between the organization and the co- founders concerning any issue expressed in the Agreement, i.e., intervention, mollification and discretion. The gatherings will concur on the administering law of the Agreement and the elite locale of the courts to which the debates under the Agreement might be alluded to.


The whole reason for having co- founder’s agreement set up is to limit the chance of any future stunning occasions. Having an unmistakable arrangement among founders around the main points of contention will assist the new pursuit with staying away from superfluous quarrel between the co- founders and keep the business running. The major questions cover the jobs and duty of fellow benefactors, value possession and so on.

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