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  • Sakshar Law Associates

Model Tenancy Act- Analysis

Updated: Dec 9, 2022


Sakshi Shairwal

Pubali Chatterjee


Having a rooftop over an individual's head and having a spot to live is a fundamental right of each and every individual. Giving a superior way of life, alongside a haven over each resident's head is the obligation of each state and that it is responsible for executing laws for the equivalent. It is likewise the privilege of each resident to request a rooftop over their head as well as a legitimate spot which is adequate to live in and which gives them an expectation for everyday comforts which not simply satisfies the absolute minimum necessity professionally however the prerequisite of carrying on with a cheerful life. The Right to Shelter has been ensured under Article 21 and Article 19 (1)(e) of the Constitution of India, under different cases by the Supreme Court, on account of Chameli Singh versus Province of UP., where the court held that-

In different cases like U.P. Avas Evam Vikas Parishad versus Companions Cooperative Housing Society Ltd., State of Karnataka versus Narasimhamurthy, and the Ahmedabad Municipal Corpn. versus Nawab Khan Gulab Khan, a similar thought regarding giving haven was maintained. In this manner, making accessible lodging is a fundamental need of life.

It is additionally because of the fast shift of the Indian culture from towns to the urban communities, for having a more prominent wellspring of acquiring and having a huge occupation market around there. The rustic populace just as the metropolitan populace continues to move starting with one state then onto the next to give a superior expectation for everyday comforts to their families. This has brought about congestion in the urban communities.

This succinct article dives into the drafted Model Tenancy Act, 2019 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs for the thought of the states and interesting all-encompassing changes in the state enactments to deal with all partners. It explicitly talks about the requirement for the Act and the advantages it propagates for the property managers and inhabitants.


Burdens of the Current Laws and Need for the execution of Model Tenancy Act 2019.

The current circumstance in India is that the centre has almost no to no influence over the lodging and leasing laws of the states. Each state has its own laws relating to this area and the states that don't have such laws follow the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 arrangements. As the leasing of houses is a topic recorded under List II of the Indian Constitution which gives the sole capacity to the states to make laws with respect to this matter. Yet, this doesn't make the Model Tenancy Act, 2019 (hereinafter alluded to as "MTA") by the middle totally excess. India follows the government model of administration and hence the centre has a more prominent say or a controlling force that drives state laws.

The issues with the current discretionary state laws are complex, to feature the regular issues in every one of them, we can bu[1]nch them under specific heads. For example, no cure is accessible to a landowner when the occupant doesn't abandon the premises after the end of the authoritative time frame of the rent. At present, there are no exacting laws set up that dissuade the occupants from doing as such and there is consistently a waiting trepidation inside the landowners of letting completely go over their premises. At that point, the inhabitants are likewise confused with regards to giving a security store to the property managers prior to moving into the house. The security store is likewise not constrained by any law that accommodates a greatest maximum cutoff.

There are additionally times when the occupants are pestered pointlessly by the landowner with a bogus suit in regards to lease installment. The landowners can make such bogus cases as no law orders them to give a receipt of installment back to the inhabitant after they have paid the lease. Along these lines, the prerequisite of having proof after each such exchange including cash should be there as an arrangement in the laws. There is another tremendous issue from the side of the landowners that their property for the installment of the lease is evaluated at the expense that the proprietor caused during the hour of the development of the house and not what the current market rate is of the house. To give better lodging offices to individuals, abstain from congestion and making of ghettos, and furthermore to give a component that guarantees the advantage is given to the proprietor of the house or land also, there is a need to carry out the MTA, 2019.


MTA has been fruitful in understanding the cutting edge worries of the leasing area and has comprehensively consolidated arrangements that advantage the two property managers and occupants just as destroy the dread of landowners. The extent of the demonstration incorporates any premises, other than an inn, dwelling house, Dharamshala or motel, etc.

Under Section 3 of the Act, Model Tenancy Act will not make a difference to-

Any premise(s) claimed or advanced by the Central/State/UT Government or Local Authority or a Government undertaking or endeavor or a Statutory body or Cantonment board;

Premises possessed by an organization, college, or association given on lease to its representatives as a component of the help contract;

Any premises possessed by strict or beneficent foundations as might be indicated by a warning;

Any premise(s) possessed by any trust enrolled under the Public Trust Act of the State;

Any premise(s) possessed by Wakfs enlisted under the Wakf Act, 1995;

Some other structures, as well as classes of the building(s), were explicitly excluded in the public interest through the warning.

However, it permits the proprietor of such places and who went into an understanding for any of classification from (a) to (f) to be controlled by the Act and the proprietor may illuminate regarding same to the Rent Authority.


A common subject in the draft act is the requirement for a composed consent to lease the premises and most of the relationships and rights and commitments come from the actual arrangement that they have gone into energetically. MTA draft permits the landowner to figure the lease for their property at a sum that is nearer to the constant market pace of the property and furthermore reconsider it or fix it if the equivalent is concurred by the inhabitant in the agreement. It gives more prominent self-governance to the property managers in issues identified with the ousting of an occupant whose rent term has reached a conclusion however who is as yet not prepared to empty the premises. The landowners presently don't have to fear losing their property from an inhabitant who has penetrated the rent arrangement. Likewise, in such conditions, the landowner additionally concurs with the option to request remuneration from the tenant.

It is compulsory for the inhabitant to take assent recorded as a hard copy of landowner if s/he intends to rent the property and alongside that occupant need to, inside the time-frame of one month of such initiation or end of sub-tenure, give every one of the essential and applicable subtleties of sub-occupancy including the subtleties of safety, end period, date of the beginning, and so on this must be performed. If because of the activity of the occupant, a responsibility upon the inhabitant emerges, at that point the property manager has been given an option to put aside allowances from the security installment paid by the tenant.

Prior, in a situation where the occupant outstays the term referenced in the lease understanding, the landowner didn't reserve the option to guarantee to pay for the penetrate. However, presently, if an (2)

Occupant exceeds, the landowner will be qualified for remuneration of twofold of the month-to-month lease for a very long time and multiple times the month-to-month lease thereafter. (3)


Therefore, the draft of the MTA is now a promising sufficient piece of law that is under audit from the states and the association domains. The law has the ability to change all the current force elements inside the leasing area and accord equivalent measures of rights to both the inhabitants just as the landowners. Making a protected act of leasing is the most critical part of the demonstration that is welcoming to the new landowners who were prior reluctant in giving their property for lease.

Model Tenancy Act holds the force of changing the attributes and elements of the leasing area in India to support the country. Consequently, it would not be rich to say that if the Indian lodging and leasing area needs to thrive in consonance with the requirements of the economy, shortage of living space, and the motivation to draw in speculation and to deal with the fragment of the populace at the pyramid of the general public, states need to execute the soul of the MTA, 2019 to exhaustively manage the difficulties tormenting this area and furthermore to lessen contrasts and questions' intensifying the excess.

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