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  • Sakshar Law Associates


Facebook is making an investment $5.7 billion or INR 43,574 crore to get near 10% fairness in Jio Platforms Limited. In its press release, the social media large expressed its intention to connect Jio’s e-commerce platform, JioMart, to small groups and shops thru “the energy of WhatsApp” to make online shopping an unbroken cell enjoy. The Jio-Facebook deal introduced final week guarantees to push India’s virtual transformation to new heights. However, out of some of the regulatory approvals, Competition Commission of India’s (CCI) approval is the most critical one. To consummate a deal that crosses the thresholds mentioned under Section five of the Competition Act, 2002, CCI’s approval is mandatory. Section 6 sub-section (2) examine with Regulation 5 of the Combination Regulations evidences a suspensory regime i.e. The approval should be acquired prior to final of the deal within the United States.

The deal, as bold because it sounds, can run into anti-believe issues. Firstly, the multi-billion-greenback investment into Jio will have to be notified to and authorized by means of India’s opposition regulator. For that to occur, CCI will take a forward-looking approach and look at that the proposed mixture does not have the capacity to cause an appreciable damaging effect on the competition within the marketplace. To guard the funding against the protectionist processes of Indian regulators is a vital factor in consummating the deal and, ultimately, sporting it ahead smoothly. Despite the criticism of the protectionist regulatory regime, CCI tends to undertake a liberal approach. In the accepted RIL-Brookfield tower infrastructure deal, the 2 were determined to be vertical participants and CCI went in advance to examine if there were any vertical overlap. With RIL’s acquisition of a stake in Saudi AramCo at a keep, it desires to be extra cautious with the funding and regulatory issues with the activities of its digital arm, Jio.

The strategic funding for acquiring the minority stake is not always certainly passive funding. The submitting of the word as per Regulation 4 of the Combination Regulations in itself is indicative of the truth that the transaction isn't inside the normal course of enterprise and is sponsored with a cause of strategic funding to usher in alternate in control. Thus, the responsibility of CCI is to peruse now not only the capacity destructive outcomes on competition however additionally the capability worries it may provide upward push to. It would be interesting to see whether the purchase of a minority stake in India’s main telecom arm would grant any manage to Facebook.

Dominance: Boon or a bane?

Both Jio and Facebook appear to be dominant players of their respective markets. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India’s information points to the fact that Jio has the best marketplace percentage in phrases of consumer base and sales sharing inside the telecom market as it holds 32% percentage inside the 1.15-billion-consumer Indian mobile offerings marketplace, taking its general person base to 369. Ninety three million, surpassing its competitors Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea. It must additionally be cited that, not like others, all Jio connections are 4G based, consequently, having a robust base of phone customers.

Now, Facebook ordinarily operates via 3 structures: fb, Instagram, and WhatsApp. All of them appear to be dominant players in the marketplace they perform in. We are best concerned with WhatsApp. Its relevant marketplace appears to be cell phone-primarily based social media messaging platform. WhatsApp has extra than 400 million showed users in India, while around six hundred million people have get right of entry to net. Other competitors to WhatsApp in India are hike, WeChat, Telegram, which most effective have a fragment of the users as WhatsApp.

Jio plans to revolutionize JioMart by means of combining it with WhatsApp to integrate small and medium scale ‘Kirana’ businesses to cater to the call for. This would first off support the placement of mother-pop shops within the local market with the aid of sewing them into the virtual framework and secondly would try to penetrate another market via the usage of the dominance of WhatsApp.

More so, WhatsApp ought to probably permit JioMart to function on its messaging platform. If carried out so, and in the manner that WhatsApp comes with pre-embedded JioMart platform, it is able to cause abuse of dominance beneath Section 4(2)(d) as installing WhatsApp could be the main agreement and pre-embedded JioMart will be the unconnected supplementary duty. This might also mean that the users could not be allowed to embed another e-commerce portal on WhatsApp messenger, which would once more seem to be causing disruption within the competition in the market and unfair to consumers as it might leave no desire to them but accept the imposed deal.

Another advantage put up the deal might be of control over purchaser statistics. As of now, RIL Chief has said that there is no agreement for moving of purchaser statistics between the parties; however, this does not erode the opportunity of stepping into such agreements within the near future. While manipulate over statistics has been used by Competition Regulators in inspecting the e-commerce and virtual systems’ anti-competitive conduct (viz. Amazon-Flipkart case, Sonam Sharma v. Apple Inc. USA), this issue within the present case must be dealt with utmost seriousness and conviction to make certain survival of healthy opposition in the e-trade marketplace, in particular at a time when Facebook has been imposed with $five billion first-rate over records privateness violation.

Appreciable Adverse Effect on Competition: Is it too soon?

Where the strategic funding is with the rationale to enter into a exclusive section using the control in respective markets to enter into a wholly exclusive product market, the parameters to test the capacity adverse effect on the competition need to be comprehensive. Google LLC, CCI found that there is a want to now not only delineate primary applicable marketplace however also related markets to relevant markets which have been tormented by the behaviour of the parties concerned. Section 20 sub-section (four) lists the factors that CCI should do not forget to conclude if there is any considerable destructive effect at the competition due to the proposed combination.

The essence of this tick list is to search for horizontal or vertical overlap in the sports put up acquisition. While there appears to be no horizontal overlap, there absolutely could be a case of vertical integration. Jio presents internet to smartphone, smartphones use internet to function WhatsApp and now WhatsApp would combine JioMart. It is not best vertical integration but the use of dominant function in a single market to go into a new marketplace, and accordingly would be possible to affect adversely the natural competition in the ‘physical’ trade market (as has been recently termed).

The analysis ought to be based totally now not most effective in the marketplace percentage of the deal members both pre and publish-acquisition, however, have to also mindfully deal with the facts sharing element of the deal, thinking about those data mammoths’ behaviour within the current past. The US Court imposing file $5 billion exceptional on Facebook for privateness violations is in itself a warning for the Indian regulators to intrude in this a ways accomplishing deal particularly, to shield the Indian start-up movement this is additionally an important wing of the Digital India flight. The deal no doubt has the ability of creating commercial enterprise and business boundaries for local tech begin-ups. The primary motive of the merger manipulate regime is to foresee unfavourable consequences and to stay up to this goal, CCI should take recognition of the interrelatedness of this deal.

One can at the same now not forget about the significance of stability between the industrial interest and the customer welfare pursuits. Though the weighing scale can by no means be equal for both, what is important for CCI as a regulator of omnipotent economic issues is that it shouldn’t step on the commercial prospects deal participants like such to make certain distributive justice.

The deal will certainly push the CCI’s merger control jurisprudence into a complete one and shall be sizable in laying down a vigilant but compendious framework for destiny deals. While we are nevertheless speculating about the character of the deal, JioMart has started out checking out WhatsApp for grocery orders in pursuance of the proposed deal. “The customer initiates the interplay on WhatsApp, tests out the grocery order on JioMart webpage, gets linked with a retail keep on WhatsApp and then patron choices up the order from Kirana and will pay in cash,” stated the news document

Platform neutrality

Platform neutrality, as the name suggests, consists of unbiasedness toward any product displayed on a market. This rule is violated in instances of integration, in which the platform holds a dual role via acting each as an intermediary and a marketplace competitor. Since the platform is a pool of consumer statistics, it offers the proprietor business enterprise and side to enhance its services through predominantly allocating false search rankings and serving biased pointers earlier than its clients. Arrangements like these result in preferential treatment being accorded to the agency’s in-residence cloud kitchen brands, developing an imbalance in the fair opposition in the applicable zone.

It is pertinent to note that the massive e-trade organizations i.e. Amazon and Flipkart have continually been below the scrutiny of the Courts for violating the platform neutrality policies. All India Online Vendors Association had accused each those companies for abusing their dominance inside the applicable marketplace by giving preferential remedy to their in part owned manufacturers. After due investigations into this rely, the CCI had unnoticed the claims of them violating any fashionable competition norms. However, repeated allegations by way of comparable businesses made the NCLAT grant a probe into this matter once more.

Following their lead, Jio has declared to sell its personal brands coupled with the opposite rival merchandise on its JioMart platform. These manufacturers consist of Best Farm, Good lifestyles, and so forth. Which in the contemporary are only bought via the Reliance shops? This can set off Jio in resorting to discriminatory practices for growing the sales of its personal products. For instance, Facebook even as marketing JioMart can select to show the Reliance brands strategically, resulting in in an growth in its revenue compared to the alternative products inside the marketplace. While this could just be a commercial enterprise approach, their movements will reason an indirect manipulation of the client’s selections, leading to the outcast of the other e-grocery manufacturers. This may bring about the Reliance grocery manufacturers achieving an unfair dominant role, entirely based totally on its prejudicial antics of promoting thru its very own platform.

Network effect

The community effect, also called community externality, is the gain gained by way of the incumbent customers whilst an extra person joins the group. Its usage is especially widely widespread within the era sector in which the tremendous community is an advantage to the customers and the obtained information serves as a bonus for its owner. Hence, there lies no rivalry inside the reality that having a massive base of records can result in an enterprise attaining a dominant position inside the market. This dominance, in sure times, can act as a prerequisite for businesses in conducting anti-aggressive behaviour. The corporations with the aid of maintaining their supremacy in a single relevant market input into every other applicable market, thereby abusing its energy to emerge dominant in both those markets. Such moves are termed as leveraging and are prohibited underneath Section four(2)(e) of the Competition Act, 2002 (“the Act”).

Digitally dominant organizations like Google have leveraged their dominance in the beyond, using its obtained facts to sell its own services i.e. Google Flights, Google Maps, and so on. The authors contend that the deal if carried out, maybe every other example of this form of abuse. As each Facebook and Jio are at dominant positions in their respective markets, they have unbridled access to facts which can be used for their very own business advantage. For instance, WhatsApp via its settlement with JioMart can gather a huge pile of information at the intake styles of the clients in India, which later can be utilised for the advertisement of the JioMart platform through Facebook. Moreover, if WhatsApp comes to a decision to make Jio Payments Bank because the on line UPI-primarily based price alternative, it'll bring about Reliance Companies gaining access to its complete user base, which include the records of its rival telecom corporations. All those advantages mixed have the ability of making Jio and its subsidiaries dominant solely based totally on the facts that it discerns organizations own, thereby which include it in the ambit of leveraging underneath Indian Competition Act.

Deep discounts

Deep discounting, usually termed as predatory pricing, occurs while a financially well-off corporation costs its product at a substantially decrease charge compared to the opposite companies within the marketplace. While the corporations protect such movements as part of their increase approach, the overpowering growth inside the dependency of its customer’s results in them accomplishing a position of power, inequitably. This can be mounted by way of relying on Section 19(4)(f) of the Act, which offers for ‘purchaser dependency’ as one of the grounds for assessing the dominance of a company. In order to scale down the imposition of such anti-aggressive inclinations, such pricing has been characterized as abuse of dominance under Section four(2)(a)(ii)of the Act, making it violative of the rules that make sure truthful competition in the markets.

Jio, inside the beyond, has been accused of predatory pricing for its net services. In truth, following this strategy, it has emerged to be one in every of the most important telecom manufacturers in India. Hence, the authors contend that the deal has the ability of financially backing the platform to introduce deep discounts for his or her products, developing a huge difference in the fees inside the market. This differential pricing by way of attracting the customers via its special reductions can pressure out the opposite e-grocery brands within the applicable marketplace. While these discounts may lead to a quick-time period advantage for its customers, the minimization in their choices will bring about a long-term loss. JioMart by using organizing its monopoly will in the end be capable of boost its costs excessively, thereby forcing its clients to shop for their products at any given fees.


While the synergy among Jio and Facebook can assist India in reaching its Digital India challenge, the harmonization of the strengths of the two groups, its exceptional access to facts and the present formidable economic backup coupled with a well-planned method has the capacity of taking up the whole e- grocery market in India. It is therefore concluded that the CCI must duly study the deal vis-à-vis the troubles laid down inside the e-trade file. If not, its execution can move in opposition to the fundamental concepts of the Competition Act, thereby undermining its importance in stopping the prevalence of such mishaps.

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